Genetic identification and classification of Iranian Artemia using microsatellite markers

Document Type : Research Paper



In this study genetic variation of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana populations were assessed using five microsatellite markers including Af-B105TAIL, Af-A136, Apdq03TAIL, Apdq04TAIL and Apdq05TAIL from Artemia franciscana and Artemia parthenogenetica. DNA was extracted from 50 cysts of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana populations individually by Hot Shot method. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were successfully conducted with all primers and then the PCR products were electrophoresed using 6% none denaturing gel and stained using silver nitrate method. Hence, all alleles were polymorphic. Average number of alleles and polymorphic information content (PIC) for Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana populations were 3.0, 0.54 and 2.5, 0.38, respectively. All loci in Artemia urmiana were in HWE but only the Af-A136 locus in Artemia franciscana was in HWE. The average expected heterozygosity for Artemia franciscana and Artemia urmiana were estimated as 0.6209 and 0.4531, respectively. The phylogeny dendrogram based on the Distance Matrix was drawn using UPGMA for within populations. Our findings demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be an appropriate tool for screening biodiversity in animals. Therefore, extinction of these invaluable genetic resources can be preserved using accurate breeding and management programs.


Abreu-Grobois FA, Beardmore JA (1982). Genetic differentiation and speciation in the brine shrimp Artemia. In: Barigozzi C (Ed.), Mechanisms of Speciation. Alan R. Liss, New York, USA, pp. 336-345.
Asem A and Rastegar-Pouyani N (2008). Morphological differentiation of Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in different geographical stations from the Urmia Lake, Iran. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3: 222-228.
Askari N, Abadi MM, Baghizadeh A (2011). ISSR markers for assessing DNA polymorphism and genetic characterization of cattle, goat and sheep populations. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology 9: 222-9.
Baxevanis AD, Triantaphyllidis GV, Kappas I, Triantaphillidis I, Triantaphyllidis DC, Abatzopoulos TJ (2005). Evolutionary assessment of Artemia tibetiana (Crustacea, Anostraca) based on morphometry and 16S rRNA RFLP analysis. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43: 189-198.
Baxevanis A, Kappas DI, Abatzopoulos TJ (2006). Molecular phylogenetics and asexuality in the brine shrimp Artemia Journal of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 724-738.
Beigi Nasiri MT, Shokri F, Esmaeil Khanian S, Tavakoli S (2007). Study on polymorphism of Isfahan native chickens population using microsatellite markers. International Journal of Poultry Science 6: 835-837.
Benedictal A, Veluraja K, Palavesam A, Immanuel G (2009). Formalin and salinity stress induced cyst induction in Artemia parthenogenetica. Romanian Journal of Biological Sciences 3: 4370-4380.
Buchanan FC, Thue TD (1998). Intrabreed polymorphic information content of microsatellites in cattle and sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78: 425-428.
Clegg JS, Jackson SA, Hoa NV, Sorgeloos P (2000). Thermal resistance, developmental rate and heat shock proteins in Artemia franciscana from Sanfrancisco Bay and southern Vietnam. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 252: 85-96.
Clegg JS (2001). Physiological and biochemical adaptations of Artemia and their practical use. International Workshop on Artemia, May12-15, 2001, California, USA.
Eimanifar A, Rezvani S, Carapetian J (2006). Genetic differentiation of Artemia urmiana from various ecological populations of Urmia Lake assessed by PCR amplified RFLP analysis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 333: 275–285.
Ernani J, Philla S, Beardmore J (1993). Genetic and morphometric differentiation in Old World bisexual species of Artemia (the brine shrimp). Journal of Heredity 73: 47- 56.
Gajardo G, Crespo J, Triantaphillidis A, Tzika A, Baxevanis AD, Kappas I, Abatzopoulos TJ (2004). Species identification of Chilean Artemia populations based on mitochondrial DNA RFLP analysis. Journal of Biogeography 31: 547-555.
Hajirostamloo M (2009). Genetic differentiation of Artemia Parthenogenetica from various ecological population of Iran. Journal of World Academy of Science 49: 154-160.
Hajirostamloo M, Pourrabbi R (2011). Genetic differentiation of Artemia franciscana in a New World enviroment. Journal of Zoology 6: 16-21.
Hedrick PW (1999) Genetic of Populations. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Manhattan, USA.
Lee TH, Chen YM, Chou HN (1999). Toxicity assay of Cyanobacterial strains using Artemia salina in comparison with the mouse bioassay. Taiwanica Journal of Zoologica 10: 1-8.
Mallet J (2001). Gene Flow. Univetsity College London Press, England. pp. 337-360.
Manaffar R, Zare S, Agh N, Abdolahzadeh N, Soltanian S, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P, Vansteppen G (2011). SNP detection in Na⁄K ATP-ase gene α1 subunit of bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia strains by RFLP screening. Journal of Molecular Ecology Resources 11: 211– 214.
Mohammadifar A, Mohammadabadi MR (2011). Application of Microsatellite Markers for a Study of Kermani Sheep Genome. Iranian Journal of Animal Science. 42: 337-344 (in Farsi).
Montiel TM, Canché LGR (2005). Biomass production and nutritional value of Artemia sp.(Anostraca: Artemiidae) in Campeche, México. International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 53: 447-454.
Muñuz J, Green AJ, Figuerola J, Amat F, Rico C (2009). Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, anostraca). Journal of Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 547–550
Naihong X, Audenaert E, Vanoverbeke J, Brendonck L, Sorgeloos P, Meester LD (2000). Low among population genetic differentiation in Chinese bisexual Artemia populations. Heredity Journal and Genetical Society of Great Britain 84: 238-243.
Nováková J, Daňová D, Strišková K, Hromada R, Mičková H, Rabibišková M (2007). Zinc and cadmium toxicity using a biotest with Artemia franciscana. Journal of Veterinary Brnno 76: 635-642.
Perez ML, Valverde JR, Batuecas B, Amat F, Marco R Garesse R (1994). Sepeciation in the Artemia genus: Mitochondrial DNA analysis of bisexual and parthenogenetic brine shrimps. Journal of Molecular Evolution 38: 156-168.
Sanguinetti CJ, Neto ED, Simpson AJG (1994). Rapid silver staining and recovery of PCR product separated on polyacrylamide gels. Journal of Biotechniques 17: 915-919.
Shojaei M, Mohammad Abadi M, Asadi Fozi M, Dayani O, Khezri A, Akhondi M (2010). Association of growth trait and Leptin gene polymorphism in Kermani sheep. Journal of Cell and Molecular Research 2: 67-73.
Sugumar V, Munuswamy N (2006). Interpolation study of three Artemia strains from South India based on cyst membrane proteins. Journal of Marine Biology 86: 1097-1100.
Tanguay JA, Reyes RC, Clegg J (2004). Habitat diversity and adaptation to environmental stress in encysted embryos of the crustacean Artemia. Indian Journal of Academy Science 29: 489-501.
Wright S (1931). Evolution in Mendelian Populations. Journal of Genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.