Karyotype analysis of some Iranian native dog population

Document Type : Research Paper



Today, Karyotying studies are important to understand the genetic structure of animals. In the current research to evaluate the chromosomal structure of some Iranian native dogs, blood samples were collected from the Kurdi, Sarabi and samples of Alborz province. Blood samples were cultured in defined medium for 72 h at 37 ˚С. Then the cell divisions were stopped at metaphase stage and chromosomal specimens were prepared for karyotype analysis. Next, centromeric index, total length of chromosome, chromosomal arm ratios and relative length of chromosomes were analyzed and the ideograms were created. The results indicated that the dog genomes contain 78 chromosomes including 38 acrocentric pairs in each sex, a pair of metacentric X in males and females and one metacentric Y chromosome in males. The average relative length of the autosomal chromosomes ranges from 1.13 to 4.89 μm in males and 1.10 to 5.21 μm in females. The ANOVA of the chromosomal data indicated that significant (P≤0.05) differences in chromosomal parameters were observed in animals. The results indicate a bias of chromosome asymmetry in animals which could be related to evolutions of the canine chromosomal structures.


Breen M, Reimann N, Bosma AA, Landon, D, Zijlstra S., Bartnitzke S, Switonski M, Long SE, de Haan NA, Binns MM, Bullerdiek J, Langford CF )1998). Standardisation of the chromosome nos. 22- 38 of the dog (Canis familiaris) with the use of chromosome painting probes; Proceedings of the 13th European Colloquium on Cytogenetics of Domestic Animals; Budapest.
Breen M, Switonski M, Binns M M (2001). Cytogenetic and physical chromosome maps. Chapter 11 in Genetics of the Dog. Ruvinsky and Sampson- eds. CAB International, Oxon, U.K.
Breen M (2008). Canine cytogenetics – from band to basepair. Cytogenetic and genome Research 120: 50-60.
Forni-Matins, E. R., Franchi-Tanibata, M . and Cardelli-De-Lucena, A. (1994). Karyotype of species of Sesbania scope. Cytologia 59: 13-18.
Gennur MN, Habib AF, Kadapa G (1988). Karyomorphological studies of nine Asiatic cotton I. karyotypic analysis of species and races of Asiatic cottons based on chromatin content. Cytologia 53: 79-106.
Gustavsson I (1964). The chromosomes of the dog. Hereditas 51:187-189.
Horsting N, Wohlsein P, Reimann N, Bartnitzke S, Bullerdiek J, Nolte I (1999). Cytogenetic analysis of three oropharyngeal malignant melanomas in dogs. Research Veterinary Science 67:149–151.
Huziwara, Y. (1962). Karyotype analysis in som genera of Copositae. VII, Further studies on the chromosom of Aster. American Journal of Botany 49: 116-119.
Kachare RW, Kanadkhedkar HL, Pawar DH, Adgale AA, Shaikh SH, Katkade BS, Umriker UD (2009). Chromosome architecture, G banding studies and media comparison for lymphocyte culture of karwani dogs. Journal of bombay veterinary college 17: 5-7.
LangfordCF, Fischer PE, Binns MM, Holmes NG, Carter NP (1996). Chromosome-specific paints from a higher solution flow karyotype of the dog. Chromosome Research 4:115–123.
Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg A (1964). Nomenclature for centromeric position parameter of dispersion index that serves asan adjunct to karyotype asymmetry. Journal of Bioresources 17:179-182.
Lightner JK (2009). Karyotypic and allelic diversity within the canid baramin (canidae). Journal of Creation 23 94-98.
Minouchi O (1928). The spermatogenesis of the dog, with special reference to meiosis. Japanese Journal of Zoology 1: 255-268
Nie W, Wang J, Su W, Wang D, Tanomtong A, Perelman P L, Graphodatsky A S, Yang F (2012). Chromosomal rearrangment and karyotype evolution in carnivoes revealed by chromosome painting. Heredity 108: 17-27
Rommel B, Hutter K J, Bullerdiek J, Bartnitzke S, Goerttler K, Schloot W (1988). Identification of flow-sorted chromosomes by G-Banding and Iin situ hybridization. Cytometry 9: 504-507.
Safarnejad A, Kosravinasab Z (2011). Cytogenetic stady of cuminum setifolium (BOISS) kos-pol as a medicinal plant. International Journal of Science and Nature 2: 105-109.
Schubert I, Reiger  R, Dobel P (1984). G and/or C-banding in plant chromosomes? Journal of Cell Science 71: 111-120.
Selden JR, Moorhead PS, Oehlert ML, Patterson DF (1975). The Giemsa banding pattern of the canine karyotype. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 15: 380–387.
Stebbins GL (1971). Chromosomal evoluation in higher plants. Edward Arnold publisher. London. UK.
Swanson C P, Merz T (1981). Cytogenetics: the Chromosome in division inheritance and evaluation, 2 end . Prentice- Hall, Boston.
Switonski M, Reimann N, Bosma A A, Long S, Bartnitzke S, Pienkowska A, Moreno-Milan MM, Fischer P (1996). Report on the progress of standardization of the G-banded canine (Canis familiaris) karyotype.Committee for the Standardized Karyotype of the Dog (Canis familiaris). Chromosome Research 4:306–309.
Switonski M, Rogalska-Niznik N, Szczerbal M, Baer M (2003). Chromosome polymorphism and karyotype evolution of four canids: the dog, red fox, arctic fox and raccoon dog. Caryologia 56: 375-385.
Topashka-Ancheva M, Gerasimova TS, Dinchev V, Dimitrov K (2009). Karyological data about the Bulgarian native dog breed ‘karakachan dog’. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 23:136-139.