Expression of hSP90 gene and its relationship with ambient temperature and foraging rate in apis mellifera meda

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf ,University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran.


HSP90 is a member of heat shock proteins (HSPs) family which produces in response to environmental stress factors and has different roles in cells. In this study, the differential expression of HSP90 gene during the day and its relationship with ambient temperature and foraging rate of worker bees were investigated.
Material and methods
The worker bees’ commuting in front of hive and ambient temperature in five different times of day (at 7:00, 9:30, 12:00, 14:30 and 17:00) were recorded for three days. The relative transcription level of HSP90 gene was measured in those times using real-time PCR method. The effects of day and different times in a day were subjected to the model as random and fixed effects, respectively, for analyzing worker bees’ commuting and ambient temperature. The regression between these traits was also run.
Results showed that time of day has significant effect on ambient temperature, worker bees’ commuting and relative expression of HSP90 (P < 0.01). The highest and lowest ambient temperature were recorded at 12:00 pm and 7:00 am, respectively. The highest and least worker bees’ commuting were obtained at 17:00 and 12:00 pm, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest HSP90 gene transcription level were recorded at 12:00 pm and 7:00 am o’clock, respectively. The regression analysis revealed that worker bees’ commuting and relative expression of HSP90 gene were increased with increasing of ambient temperature; the commuting of bees was reduced in temperature above 39 ̊ C. Furthermore, the worker bees’ commuting was increased with increasing of HSP90 expression to three-fold, which was decreased with more relative expression level.
In general, the trend of worker bees’ commuting, ambient temperature, and relative expression of HSP90 gene were clear during the day. When the ambient temperature was increased, the relative transcription level of HSP90 gene was increased in response to heat stress, while the number of commuter bees was decreased. The management of heat shock can be recommended to improve nectar gathering by commuter bees.


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