عنوان مقاله [English]
Over the course of evolution, the immune system has finely tuned itself into a formidable defense mechanism against infectious agents. A fundamental aspect of its functionality lies in the ability to discern between self and nonself, crucial for triggering immune responses. However, cancer disrupts this equilibrium, characterized by aberrations in the DNA code that empower cells to proliferate uncontrollably while evading immune surveillance. Immunotherapy emerges as a promising avenue, seeking to train the immune system to identify and eradicate these rogue cancer cells, thereby presenting a novel strategy in the battle against cancer. Despite the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors across various advanced cancer types, the overall response rate in individuals undergoing such treatments hovers around thirty percent. Recognizing the need for advancements, recent research delves into nanoparticle-based approaches aimed at enhancing cancer therapies and vaccinations. The focus centers on developing biotechnology that employs durable artificial nanoparticles to transform cancerous cells into tumor-based Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs). This transformative process involves stimulating coexpression of costimulatory molecules and immunostimulatory cytokines. What distinguishes this nanomedicine is its capacity to induce a generalized tumor-specific and cell-mediated immune response without assuming specific antigens expressed by tumors. This innovation holds tremendous potential for advancement in translational medicine, offering a versatile and adaptive solution to the challenges posed by cancer immunotherapies. By leveraging the capabilities of artificial nanoparticles, researchers aspire to elevate the efficacy of cancer treatments and propel the field towards a new era of more targeted and potent interventions. In conclusion, the intricate interplay between the immune system and cancer underscores the necessity for innovative therapeutic approaches. The exploration of nanoparticle-based strategies represents a frontier in cancer research, holding the promise of refining immunotherapies and ushering in a new era of precision medicine for the benefit of patients grappling with this complex and formidable disease.